IJWWE Style Sheet

If you intend to submit an essay or a review to the International Journal of Welsh Writing in English, please follow this style guide closely. Submissions, which don’t follow the style guide, may be returned.

Please make sure your document is set out in the following way.

Layout and spacing:

  • double-spaced throughout (inc. quotations and notes)
  • 2.54 cm margins left, right, top and bottom
  • all text is left-justified (incl. headings)
  • only one space after punctuation marks
  • no page numbers
  • at the end of each paragraph use two hard returns
  • indent the beginning of each paragraph (one tab)
  • indicate the placement of figures, tables or illustrations by square brackets, e.g. [fig. 3 near here]
  • hyphens/dashes: use an en dash (–) as punctuation and to indicate page ranges (e.g. pp. 9–12) and a hyphen (-) for connecting words (e.g. working-class).
  • insert a space between initials of authors, e.g. G. B. Shaw, not G.B. Shaw.

Title and author affiliation:

  • title comes first followed by two hard returns;
  • then author name – comma – affiliation followed by two hard returns


  • Times New Roman, 12 pt


  • don’t use text in bold
  • only use words in italics if you really need to (or if italicised text is being quoted)
  • keep scare quotes (e.g. “truth”) to a minimum. Use two quotation marks.


  • use three dots (xxxx … yyyy)


  • don’t use the Oxford comma
  • use semi-colons and colons only when necessary


  • use UK spelling, particularly (-ise, not -ize; -isation, not -ization).


  • Be selective in your use of brackets. If what you write is important, it doesn’t need to go into brackets. If it’s in brackets, it might not be important for your argument.
  • Try to write simple, direct sentences and avoid the passive voice unless it is appropriate. If your sentence is more than 3 lines long, consider revising it.
  • Do not use contractions (don’t, won’t, he’s).


  • ‘single quotation marks’ for short quotations (under and up to 3 lines of your text, including poetry)
  • “double quotation marks” for quotations within quotations and emphases
  • indented text for long quotations (over 3 lines of text, including poetry). Please indent prose by 1.27cm and poetry by 2.54cm on the left.
  • There is no need for extra hard returns before and after a long quotation – the indentation is sufficient.

 Notes and referencing in endnotes:

Please note that IJWWE uses endnotes, not footnotes. References are given in the endnotes, not in a bibliography. Please follow the following referencing guide.

First references are given in full in an endnote, which should be inserted directly after the quotation/reference or as soon as possible afterwards at the end of the sentence.

Links to www sources should be typed in italics and not be live.

Examples of first references:


Peter Hallward, Out of This World: Deleuze and the Philosophy of Creation (London and New York: Verso, 2006), pp. 36-7.

Essay collection:

Wayne C. Booth, ‘Why Ethical Criticism Can Never Be Simple’, in Stephen K. George (ed), Ethics, Literature and Theory: An Introductory Reader, 2nd ed (Oxford: Rowman and Littlefield, 2005), pp. 23-36, p. 30.


E. C. Bowen, ‘The Tradition of Elis Deirteth and the Medieval Grotesque in Rural Carmarthenshire’, Welsh History Review, 19/1 (1998), 68-102 (p.70).


Anne Morey and Claudia Nelson, ‘The Child in Neo-Victorian Fiction’, Neo-Victorian Studies, 5/1, 2012, http://www.neovictorianstudies.com, pp. 1-13 (12) [accessed 12/6/2012]

Other www-source:

John McDonnell, “London Characters and the Humorous Side of London Life (1871)” The Victorian Web, http://www.victorianweb.org/books/mcdonnell/

scenes1.html [accessed 12/6/2012]


National Library of Wales, Ellis Papers 1698; 6 George IV, chap. 50, section 1, An Act for consolidating and amending the laws relative to Jurors and Juries.

Continual reference:

For authorities and locations to which continual reference is made, an abbreviated form can be established on the first occurrence, e.g. National Library of Wales (NLW), the National Archive (TNA) etc. If there are existing and widely used abbreviated forms, these should be used.

Examples of second and subsequent references:


Hallward, Out of this World, pp. 36-7.

Essay collection:

Booth, ‘Why Ethical Criticism Can Never Be Simple’, pp. 30.


Bowen, ‘The Tradition of the Elis Deirteth and the Medieval Grotesque in Rural Carmarthenshire’, 70.

Second and subsequent references referring to the same source as the reference before are given as

ibid (same text, same page)

ibid, p. 45 (same text, but different page)

In cases of frequent citation it is acceptable to include references in running text after the first citation has been given in full in an endnote. For second and subsequent references, use a short citation form in parentheses, e.g. (pp. 45-46).


  • please ensure that you have permission to reprint your illustrations
  • submit illustrations in separate files (saved as .jpg, .eps or .tif, not as .doc or .docx)
  • if precise placement is necessary, indicate in the text where the illustrations should be placed, e.g. [fig. 2 near here]
  • references in the text to illustrations should take the form of ‘Table 1’ etc. for tables and ‘Figure 1’ etc. for all other illustrative materials

If supplied electronically, the following specification is necessary:

  • minimum 300dpi
  • greyscaled
  • in the case of .eps, ensure that all fonts are changed to outline

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )


Connecting to %s